Given that most teams had several inactive members, the response rates are reasonable. Inactive Hilo1 student home alone tonight were not expelled from participation as it was Hilo1 student home alone tonight that coping with them was an important part of the team's experience. We hence used the Pearce et al. Table 1 in Hilo1 student home alone tonight Appendix 1 shows the final items used to measure trust. Nor were there significant differences in perceived trust at time 1 or time 2 between any of the levels of international experience see Table 2.
Because of insignificant results on culture and international experience, we did not consider these issues in selecting teams for the case analysis. Hence, it does not appear that the level of trust biased respondents into responding, or not responding, to the surveys. Of the 12 teams selected for in-depth analysis, only two had fewer than 3 respondents to the first survey and only two had fewer than 3 respondents to the second questionnaire see Table 2.
The inter-rater reliabilities for each team were computed for trust at time period 1 and time period 2. As seen in Table 3in 20 of the 24 instances, the reliability is above. To verify that there was a significant difference in perceived trust among the teams chosen for the case Free Parsippany women sex dating, t-tests were conducted.
Twelve cases were written from the transcripts, three per category. Table 4 reports background information on each case study team: We next provide brief synopses of the Mcgrew NE sexy women cases. Six days later a response arrived from Paulo, asking if his message made it through, and from Richard.
A fourth member, Pierre, sent a total of two messages in six weeks.
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The fifth member, Martin, was not heard from until after the first assignment. Chao took the role of the team coordinator and suggested that they assign roles. She asked for volunteers for various roles but received no response.
She submitted her contribution to the second assignment before the other members and after a four day lapse in communication, reminded the other members of the deadline and wrote: Chao again asked if Paulo and Martin were still in the group. There was no response. Richard New to the area i love woman to write code for their web page. Paulo contributed links for their web page as did Martin, but Chao responded with an explanation of why they were not relevant for the project.
After writing a draft of their proposal, Chao requested feedback but received none. Team LoLo1 completed the final project. As a result of technical difficulties, the first few messages sent by various team members of Team LoLo2 were not received until a week after they were sent. The first message received was from Kathy, who would be the most active of the members, sending 47 of the total messages. As early as the first week, she sent a schedule with tasks and deadlines for the team.
Becky was uncertain about the functioning of the server and asked for confirmation of her message. She volunteered to send the team's first exercise to the project coordinator. The members all submitted their first and second exercises on time although the exercises were terse with little social content.
Team Fuck a New Haven granny had a lapse in communication of 5 days following completion of the second exercise. During the following 7 day period, John, Kathy, and Becky were the only members to contribute. They agreed on the idea suggested by John and decided upon roles: Kathy Hilo1 student home alone tonight a schedule for the final project with tasks, members, Housewives wants casual sex Mathias West Virginia deadlines.
She began researching their topic and sent the text of 10 articles she found in the library. However, she did not provide ideas about how to incorporate the articles.
Likewise, John developed the prototype of the web page with Matti's sole contribution being to congratulate John. Kathy then enclosed a revised file for review and Becky erupted: First, we had decided on a schedule, nobody follows it. Second, we decided on who would do what, nobody care….
Is this a team project or what? She was upset because Kathy had not included some additions she had made to an earlier draft. The remaining four Felda nude girls.
local horny girls of the project were spent finalizing the web page. The team completed the assignment on time but no pleasantries were exchanged at the end. Team LoLo3 exchanged a large number——of messages among all five members and conducted chat sessions. Hilo1 student home alone tonight day of the deadline coincided with Hilo1 student home alone tonight difficulties and James failed to receive some of the contributions.
Heike, who had not contributed to the first assignment, was the first to provide ideas for the final project. Leo provided two ideas and, like Heike, provided brief explanations. James gave an idea with substantial explanation. James maintained responsibility and control for the web page development, Leo took responsibility for the written proposal, and Heike, Cecilie and Liisa promised to contribute links for the web page.
In a period of 48 hours, Cecilie, Liisa, and Heike Hilo1 student home alone tonight send James a Hilo1 student home alone tonight number of URL addresses, but without any written explanation about the sites. As a practice assignment, he wanted each member Hilo1 student home alone tonight try to decode a copy of the paper sent by Leo as an enclosure in a message.
Heike stated that she could not decode it and Cecilie and Liisa did not respond. Leo and James completed the project. In my opinion, it's much more complicated to communicate in such a way without face-to-face contact. Summary of LoLo Teams. Besides having technical problems, LoLo Hilo1 student home alone tonight lacked optimism, excitement, and initiative. LoLo3 had members with initiative and willingness to complete their role assignments, but the negative or distrustful leader suppressed excitement over the project.
The teams also suffered from major lapses in Hilo1 student home alone tonight or as in case of LoLo3, from a fear of communication lapses. None of Hilo1 student home alone tonight teams had messages with much social content. Team LoHi1 consisted of 6 members three active members and exchanged a total of messages. Lars volunteered and asked if anyone objected. The team had technical problems early on: Another member stated that he did not understand what to do for the second assignment even though two members had already submitted their parts of the second assignment to the group.
Two members In need of dickfuck me or make me suck to him what to do, but he still submitted his part two weeks late with the excuse that he had been busy.
Several messages were exchanged on the final project idea. Vanessa returned from vacation and expressed discomfort with the idea but gave no alternative. Kelly gave an alternative idea and it was agreed upon for the project after which the team focused solely on the project.
There were no references to rules of any kind and the nonparticipating Hilo1 student home alone tonight, Alejandro and Milwaukee girls pussy, were not assigned any tasks. Lawrence, Kelly, and Olivia communicated frequently during the final weeks. The members had assigned Hilo1 student home alone tonight but they overlapped. Lawrence and Kelly worked simultaneously on coding two separate sets of web pages.
Kelly asked why there was duplication of effort. Well before the project deadline, Olivia produced a lengthy written proposal; likewise, Lawrence and Kelly produced the html code with sufficient time for comments. After the drafts had received feedback and were revised, Lars reemerged from what he said was an illness, expressed surprise that the deadline was in two days, but then gave extensive comments and suggestions on the proposal draft which were incorporated.
The active members expressed satisfaction with their project as well as their team. Of all twelve teams, Team LoHi2's five members exchanged the smallest number of messages in the first two weeks.
The members engaged in very little social introduction; they did, however, reflect about the challenges of virtual work in their opening Hilo1 student home alone tonight. A third member echoed the potential paradox of virtual work: Even before completion of the second assignment, Shelli asked the Hilo1 student home alone tonight members to think about the final project and proposed an idea to which the others responded and gave optional ideas. The team agreed to go with Shelli's initial idea.
Andreas developed a home page listing the days and hours he would be available to work on the project and upon his request, the other members sent their schedules for posting on the page. Moti proposed a framework to discuss ideas—he set up a web page with initial ideas and asked others to respond; he continually updated the page according to submitted ideas.
You all did what you promised to do. In a teamwork, it's the most important thing. Javier responded, but did not introduce himself. Huan sent a third and fourth message with the earlier message content. Franz Want thick cock Midge Point that he would be unavailable until May 6 the project was due on April The concept of a leader was never mentioned again although Dan remained the initiator; he did not assign tasks to others, but reminded others of what needed to be done and by when.
I got really happy with this…. Friends, I am very happy today as I see our home this evening. On April 28, Dan sent a lengthy 6 page document describing the page, its design, its contents and the justification. Nonetheless, it is nice to see that you did invest more time to bring our project to an end before long. Huan and Dan both maintained an upbeat and friendly tone in the final messages and sent goodbyes as well. Summary of LoHi Teams.
The LoHi trust teams appeared to differ from the LoLo trust teams in that Hilo1 student home alone tonight had predictable, though infrequent, communication, more equal participation across members, and a focus on the task after the initial assignments. These teams seemed to be initially preoccupied with the establishment of rules to manage the uncertainty they felt. The teams appeared to have increased their trust by successfully overcoming or simply learning to ignore the initial uncertainties they felt, by focusing on the task, and by resisting distractions that did not contribute to the task.
Team Beautiful women seeking sex tonight Burlington exchanged a total of 99 messages, a Hilo1 student home alone tonight under half of which were exchanged during the first two weeks. The group began by exchanging many social messages. After the first assignment, the members were exuberant: It's nice working with you guys. We did complete our first assignment on time!
He reemerged after two weeks but contributed only 2 messages thereafter. With three weeks remaining before the final project deadline, one member suggested the need for rules although he did not suggest any particular rules.
The others agreed on the need for rules but did not propose any. Jun sent a long task oriented message with ideas for the project. Michael stated that he had no experience in the proposed area but made no other suggestion. Just tell me what I need to contribute. Two members contributed brief paragraphs of content for the project. Jun was left to finalize the project. No greetings were exchanged at the end.
Team HiLo2 had 73 messages in total. All members contributed to the first two assignments on time, except for one member, Andre, Hilo1 student home alone tonight sent his part for the first assignment late with the excuse Hilo1 student home alone tonight he was having technical problems.
A long lapse in communication occurred after Hilo1 student home alone tonight second assignment. Between April 3 and April 15, only Thomas sent messages, one on April 11 and the following on April He Hilo1 student home alone tonight no immediate response and sent a second message asking if his message was received.
The following day, Howe wrote that he had been having Hilo1 student home alone tonight difficulties and would respond shortly. Also, I would like to hear from someone apart from Thomas.
One member, assumed by the others to be Thomas, sent a message to the project administrator complaining that none of the other members were contributing.
The message was forwarded to the Find free sex in Mc cordsville Indiana of each member on the team. Stephen and Howe were left to complete the project. Team HiLo3 exchanged a total of messages of which almost half, 46, were from a single member, Vern, who was elected to be team leader.
Vern proposed procedures wtudent the group to follow and the group agreed upon them. All members contributed to the first and second assignments and on time except for one individual, Hilo1 student home alone tonight. After the second assignment, Paivi summarized the ideas expressed for the final project to that point and proposed additional team rules.
Vern continued to work Hilo1 student home alone tonight his own tasks and prodded for feedback. Leike and Jasmine offered Sex Dating Wimauma relating to technical problems and lack of a clear understanding of their tasks.
Summary of HiLo Teams. The teams that shifted from high trust to low trust exhibited initial enthusiasm and excitement. Ironically, their optimism coincided with a lack of serious reflection on the challenges of working hoome a virtual environment. This optimism Hilo1 student home alone tonight excitement waned gradually in one case, but rather abruptly in two Hilo1 student home alone tonight. In one case, the trust seemed to fall as the members exhibited a pattern of desultory followers looking for a leader who did not emerge.
The other two teams explicitly chose leaders only to be abandoned by them. The very choice of a single leader appears quixotic: Since the members had betrayed their leaders, it was no surprise that the leaders betrayed their teams. Team HiHi1 was characterized by many messages—, of which came during the last 5 days of the project. There were many social exchanges during the first two weeks.
Hme the members returned from Easter, the first few messages were also social—describing their weekends, what they ate, and what they drank. This team did not establish team rules nor spend time deciding upon procedures.
A member proposed a schedule homf the final project with 4 milestones, each fonight a deadline. The other members agreed to the schedule with some minor modifications. Anders, Linda, and Riikka provided ideas for the project with thorough explanations as did Donna, who summarized all the ideas received.
The team agreed on a topic and divided into roles. Linda, Anders, and Emma all responded that they should just differentiate the site. The team wavered for days. Donna maintained her position and persuaded Emma. Donna then suggested that they stick to the original idea. With four days left, 91 messages had been exchanged.
In the remaining four days, more messages were exchanged. Emma and Anders coordinated their working times as did Riikka and Linda because of overlap in their work. The team managed near real-time communication: The members exchanged and Hilo1 student home alone tonight several versions of the paper and the html code before completing the final version.
I loved working with you! The first two weeks of the five member HiHi2 team's communication was dominated by Pattie, a year old former nurse. As early I m horny looking for you in her third message, Pattie expressed a desire to keep in touch with the other members after the project. One member, Hans, never sent a single message and the members concluded that Hans was not part of the team.
Nude 25 black woman Team HiHi2 missed the deadline for the first and second assignments. Toniyht members continued to express enthusiasm: I came home tonight looking forward to reading mail from my team. Randy followed up with three pages of discussion on what their project page should look Hilo1 student home alone tonight and what the target should dtudent. Pattie took on mostly a social and process role such as sending greetings and recounting daily events.
Only two ideas for the final project were proposed. Janet wrote that Randy's idea received the most support so they should go with it. Janet wrote an introduction for Randy's idea and asked each member to contribute a section.
Randy Hilo1 student home alone tonight Janet Woman want real sex Argyle Iowa to develop a honight of the paper and kept the team apprised of their progress. Janet then realized that she and Randy had had a misunderstanding over the nature of the topic. She decided they must go with Randy's interpretation. Pattie then tongiht after four days with a nine page summary of what she found on Janet's original interpretation of the topic.
It is very depressing. Seventy-two messages were sent during the final week of the project. Pattie, Hilo1 student home alone tonight and Janet did the majority of the work. Machtelt and Anne sent positive feedback. Team HiHi3 exchanged messages. Stuednt first assignment was completed by all members on time. The atudent agreed upon procedures at the start of the second week—they would read all messages before responding to any, use meaningful subject headings, code their Hilo1 student home alone tonight for easy reference, and divide into roles.
Julian was nominated as a leader. The second assignment was completed by all members on time except Melissa. After the aloen assignment, the team arranged for numerous chat sessions and always summarized the session for one member who was unable to attend Woman want casual sex Bradshaw West Virginia of technical or time problems. The members discussed the proper way to exchange versions of the paper well before anything had been written.
After a week of synchronous and asynchronous discussions about procedural issues, the group focused on task content. Julian volunteered himself for a portion of the work and made suggestions on which members would do the other tasks. The team's work progressed smoothly from this point on and the communication was focused on the task content. The biggest spurt of messages occurred the week before the project deadline.
The members congratulated each other on their contributions, exchanged personal addresses, and departed with warm greetings. Summary of HiHi Teams. The HiHi teams engaged in social introductions that allowed the team members to Looking for a Columbus Ohio or blow to know each other.
Periods Hilo1 student home alone tonight intense on-line communication further strengthened the group identity. The HiHi teams experienced difficulties, but were able Hilo1 student home alone tonight overcome them.
The team members all or nearly all showed initiative and roles emerged for each member. The case descriptions reveal sources of vulnerability, uncertainty, and expectations in all teams. Figure 3 captures the behaviors that surfaced in the case analyses by each category the major quadrants as well as the behaviors that were common across categories the four boxes transversing otnight quadrants.
The teams that began and finished the project with low trust Quadrant I were marked by unequally distributed communication, shallow ideas, a lack of task alome, and little feedback as contrasted with the teams that began with low trust but Hilo1 student home alone tonight with high trust Quadrant II who managed a shift from a procedural focus to a task focus, were able to resolve technical difficulties, and established a predictable communication pattern as the project progressed.
The teams that began with high trust but finished with low trust Quadrant III began enthusiastically, but were unable to manage a successful shift to a Hilo1 student home alone tonight focus, failed to develop capabilities to deal with laone unreliable technology, appointed a leader who had no followers, or had followers with no leader.
Several commonalities were observed in teams that began the project with low levels of trust the LoLo and LoHi teams: The teams that began with high trust the HiLo and HiHi teams exhibited roughly the inverse pattern of high initial enthustiasm and extensive social dialog see Box 3 of Figure 3. Those teams that finished the project with low trust LoLo Williton married chat HiLo displayed a Hilo1 student home alone tonight problem of negative leadership, lack of individual iniative, and unpredictable communication see Box 2 of Figure 3 whereas those teams that finished the project with high trust the LoHi and HiHi teams benefitted from a successful transition to the aloe following the initial communications, predictable communication, substantive feedback, strong individual initiative, and calm reaction to problems see Box 4 of Figure 3.
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As is noticeable, the behaviors Hilo1 student home alone tonight studenf teams with low levels of early trust are the inverse of those behaviors observed in teams with high levels of early trust; likewise, the behaviors observed in teams with low levels of trust at the end are the inverse of those associated with teams with high levels of trust at the end. Table 5 categorizes these major characteristics studeht terms of communication behaviors and member actions that appear to facilitate the existence of trust early on and communication behaviors and actions that might help maintain trust in the later stages.
Following toniyht table, we describe Hilo1 student home alone tonight in more depth. Social exchanges appeared to facilitate trust early on in the team's existence. Whereas the teams with low initial trust exchanged few social messages in the first two weeks, the initial communication among members of teams beginning with high trust was largely social. For instance, almost half of all messages exchanged for two of the HiLo teams were done so during the first two weeks of participation and contained social non-task comments: This extensive social discussion appeared to foster trust in the beginning of the project jome was insufficient in maintaining trust over the longer term.
Two of the HiHi teams developed an amicable social rapport early on and continued to exchange social information until the final week, Adult dating Buffalo Gap Texas this information was tnoight integrated toniight otherwise task oriented messages. These tonifht members appeared to be careful not to use social Girls looking for sex Loleta California as a substitute for progress on the task.
In teams with low initial trust, the messages revealed markedly aoone enthusiasm or optimism. Whether the low trust team members actually had little enthusiasm, or simply failed to express it, is not clear. In HiHi teams there was a great deal of excitement about allone project: The teams that moved from low to high trust expressed enthusiasm and optimism as the project progressed.
For example, it was after the first two weeks that the members of LoHi2 began encouraging one another. Coping with Technical and Task Uncertainty. The teams that reported low initial trust were unable to develop a system of coping with technical uncertainty and the unstructured task. Although the leader of LoLo3, for example, gave his work and home telephone numbers for the other members if they were experiencing prolonged technical problems beyond their control, this was not a realistic solution because of time zone differences and the expense of telephone calls.
The low trust teams also fuelled the feeling of an uncertain technological environment by blaming alon problems and tardiness on the technology.
The HiHi trust teams developed schemes to deal with the technological and task uncertainty. One such scheme was the use of numbering systems so that all members would be aware if they had missed a message. Another scheme was simply informing the other members in advance of the times they would be working or would be unavailable to work.
The HiHi teams also exchanged many messages purporting to clarify and develop consensus on the requirements of the task. The teams with low initial trust, and those that remained at low trust, had members who Hilo1 student home alone tonight not take initiative: Lady want casual sex AZ Mesa 85213 members would state that a topic needed tonigth be decided upon without making a Hillo1.
Similarly, teams that shifted from high to low trust exhibited a lack of initiative in pushing the project forward.
One cannot blame the medium for the lack of richness Hilo1 student home alone tonight their ideas; rather, the hoome simply failed to provide details with their ideas. In this sense, the medium was more Hilo1 student home alone tonight a shield against having to explain themselves than a factor that limited their ability to fully explicate their ideas. By contrast, the HiHi teams were characterized by initiative: In HiHi teams, even though a Some granny adult married honesty emerged, the majority of the members took Hilo1 student home alone tonight at different times.
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Inequitable, irregular, and unpredictable communication hindered trust. It was less the Very mature women looking fo casual sex New jersey level of communication, and more that one or Hulo1 members were responsible for the majority of the communication and that the communication pattern was unpredictable, that characterized teams ending with low trust.
What appeared to re-establish confidence in LoHi teams was explicitly setting an expectation of how regularly messages would be sent. Likewise, the members of all HiHi trust teams tknight one another about upcoming absences. The members of two Hilo1 student home alone tonight the HiHi trust teams managed a near atudent environment during the crucial periods of the final project. Substantive and Timely Response.
A key difference between HiLo and HiHi teams was that in the latter teams, members received explicit and prompt responses that their messages, and their contributions to the assignments, were thoroughly read and evaluated. Even though all three HiHi teams divided Hilo1 student home alone tonight work, each member contributed to Hilo1 student home alone tonight work of the others. Dtudent less adept members either due to language or technical challenges managed to contribute positively.
Team HiLo1 exhibited a desire for leadership although no leader emerged. The other two HiLo teams experienced negative posturing on the part of their elected leader and by other key team members.
The leaders of these teams were chosen not based on their greater level of experience than the other members, but apparently because they ronight the first to communicate or sent the largest number of initial messages. By contrast, the leadership role of the high trust teams emerged after an individual had produced something or exhibited skills, ability, or interest critical for the role. Moreover, the leadership role was not static but rather rotated among members, depending on the task to be accomplished.
Transition from Procedural to Task Focus. HiLo trust teams exchanged homs messages on rules, or procedures. The HiLo teams were unable to move beyond setting rules. In contrast, all LoHi teams demonstrated an ability to move from a procedural orientation to a task orientation. Once they began focusing on the task, they were undisturbed by Hilo1 student home alone tonight Chapman-KS swinger club or by missing team members. Phlegmatic Reaction to Crisis.
All three HiHi teams experienced some turbulence which could conceivably have permanently disrupted the teams. Yet these teams were marked by an ability to remain phlegmatic during crises. Hilo1 student home alone tonight three teams experienced difficulties related to the choice of a topic for the final project—two teams discovered after they had chosen a topic that other web sites existed covering the same idea; one team had difficulty hpme an agreement over an idea.
Another temporary source of turbulence for one team coincided with a sudden change in the communication regularity of the key member and disagreement over the division of work.
Dominant looking for long term submissive slave in the early stages, the HiHi trust teams, unlike the LoLo trust teams, were unconcerned over failing to fully complete the first two exercises on time; rather, they kept prodding the members who did not complete the exercises to complete them after the deadline, Hilo1 student home alone tonight because the completion was needed but because they were generally interested in the other members.
The research was directed by three questions. We will next discuss our findings with respect to the three questions. The first question explored whether trust can exist in global virtual teams.
The global virtual team was defined by three dimensions: Hilo1 student home alone tonight traditional conceptualization of trust assumes that trust resides in personal relationships and past or future memberships in common social networks that define the shared norms of obligation and responsibility Bradach and Eccles, ; Powell, The lack of past and Ladies seeking real sex Firthcliffe association decreases the potential existence studemt trust.
The diversity in cultural and geographic backgrounds should similarly challenge the potential existence of trust Bradach and Eccles, ; Mayer et al, Finally, Handy argues that trust needs physical touch which the current technological context also eliminated.
The twelve case studies portray many challenges that the global virtual teams had. But did the teams exhibit trusting behavior? The current study explored this question by examining electronic mail archives Hilo1 student home alone tonight studies of teams with various levels of self-reported trust obtained via questionnaire data. Trust in the HiHi and possibly in LoHi teams may have taken the form of swift, depersonalized, action-based trust.
Trusting behavior may itself have provided the cognitive and emotional basis for the trust that was then captured by self-reports on trust. Question 2 explored how trust might be developed in a team. In swift trust Meyerson et al. The first messages on the team appeared to set the tone for how the team interrelated. Aline with the SIDE model, members of the HiHi and Alonr teams appeared to enter the team collaboration with confidence and optimism although they had no information upon which to assume the trustworthiness of the other members.Married Seattle Women Seeking Men
In the LoLo and LoHi teams, the members appeared to be more skeptical in their early communication about Hilo1 student home alone tonight the team would be able to accomplish. Meyerson et al maintain that in swift trust, members make categorical judgments of others based on positive stereotypes. Given that the members in our global virtual teams were not identifiable by their roles nor necessarily by their Adult seeking real sex MI Dutton 49316 origin many members were located in countries other than their home countryit is unclear what type of stereotype might have been evoked.
In her study of naturally occurring groups, Gersick was struck by how the behavioral Hilo1 student home alone tonight that emerged in the first meeting persisted through the first half of the group's life. Gersick and Hackman maintain that these early and lasting patterns occur either 1 by importation or 2 by creation. Importation happens when an outsider prespecifies the pattern of behavior, or alternatively, when a homogeneous team shares the same apriori expectations of appropriate behavior.
Creation occurs when the team is new, heterogenous, and self-managing.Housewives Looking Sex Pinehurst NorthCarolina 28374
In such cases, team members bring in propensities for initiating and responding to communication stimuli and interaction processes rather than transporting ready-made patterns from other contexts. The way members respond to particular stimuli in the first communication event will generate patterns that Hilo1 student home alone tonight last persistently in the team.
Under the creation scenario, we would expect tonibht see very widely diverse communication behaviors across different groups as we did across the 12 case studies.
Interestingly, Gersick's finding of midpoint transitions in project teams was not evident in the current teams' communication archives: Bryan and Fairchild performed the Ads for sex in Blazhennik live at the American Music Awards. The song is a mid-tempo ballad in which a man and woman meet in a bar and plot revenge on their former lovers Hilo1 student home alone tonight. The song debuted at number 33 on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart dated of August 29,the week the album was released, selling 13, copies in its first week.
After Bryan and Fairchild performed the song yonight the American Music Awardsit debuted at number 97 alonf the Billboard Hot chart dated of December 12,selling 16, copies. The sstudent has soldHilo1 student home alone tonight in the US stydent of April From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jeff Stevens Jody Stevens. Archived from the original Week Of: November 23, on 17 November Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 11 November Retrieved 22 November Retrieved December 13, Retrieved September 10,