The Pioneer Valley is the colloquial and promotional name for the portion of the Connecticut River Valley that is in Massachusetts in the United States.
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The upper Pioneer Valley region includes the smaller cities of Northampton and Greenfieldthe county seats of Hampshire and Franklin counties. Historically the northern part of the Valley was an agricultural region, known for growing Connecticut shade tobacco and other specialty crops fro Hadley asparagushowever since the late 19th century the Valley's economy has become increasingly a knowledge economy Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex, being in the eponymous Knowledge Corridor.
Similarly the Springfield - Chicopee - Holyoke economies transformed from volume producers of goods such as paper Women want nsa Bronson Texas armamentsinto a combination of specialized manufacturing, and distribution services for Boston and New York.
The Holyoke RangeMount Tom Rangeand numerous rolling hills, bluffs, and meadows feature extravagant homes from the Gilded Agemany of which surround New England's longest and largest river, Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex Connecticut Riverwhich flows through the region.Mature Cape Coral Man For Aa Woman
The Pioneer Valley is a popular, year-round tourist destination—a role that it has played historically, prior to its deindustrialization from approximately The region features alpine skiing at resorts such as Berkshire East and Blandford Ski Resort and seasonal festivals that draw millions of visitors, such as The Big E —all six New England states' collective, annual state fair in West Springfield —and Bright Nights at Springfield's Forest Park —an elaborate, high-tech lighting display during the holiday season.
The Pioneer Valley includes approximately half of the southern Connecticut River Valley —an ancient rift valley created by the breakup of the supercontinent Pangea along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during the Triassic and Jurassic periods of the Mesozoic Era.
The Connecticut River has been Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex through the valley for millions xex years and was naturally dammed to form glacial lake Hitchcock during the last ice age. According to King's Handbook of Springfieldby Moses Kingthe Pioneer Valley "is not an ordinary river channel; it is, in fact, a trough between two systems of mountains.
To the west lie the worn-down remnants of the once lofty Berkshire Mountains; on the east, the yet more degraded Sprkngfield which constitute what we may call Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex Eastern Massachusetts set of mountain ridges.
These rocks now form many sharp hills and mountains in the Valley. During the Triassic time, Massachusetts's portion of the Connecticut River Valley formed a shallow arm of the sea," leaving deposits that enriched the Pioneer Valley's inordinately fertile soil.
Geologically interesting parts of the Valley are the basalt flows and dinosaur tracks in South Hadley and Holyoke, Massachusettsa chain of basaltic traprock ridges known as Metacomet Ridge along the ancient tectonic rift including the Mount Holyoke and Mount Tom ranges, layers of rock deposit Horny women in Cornett down by the Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex, and varves and deltas deposited by Lake Hitchcock during the Pleistocene.
The region known as the Pioneer Valley constitutes Massachusetts's portion of the fertile Connecticut River Valley and the hill and mountain towns to its LLocal and west. The following three counties—from north to south, and Hot Girl Hookup Ste Genevieve with a Massachusetys character—encompass the Pioneer Valley:.
Franklin County is the most rural county in Massachusetts and thus reminiscent of southern Vermontwhich it borders. Greenfield is its largest municipality, a small city frequently used as a gateway to the region's many outdoor pursuits. The county offers downhill skiing at resorts such as Berkshire Eastwhite-water rafting, zip-lining, hiking, kayaking, and other outdoor pursuits.
In addition, Franklin County contains many rustic, former mill towns. Many of these have become quaint and scenic since the decline of the mills, e. Massachusetts's Routes 2 and 2A, which oLcal through Franklin County, feature many antique stores. Hampshire County is the home to five prominent colleges and universities that cooperate with each other and are known collectively as the Five Colleges.
Each of these highly regarded liberal arts colleges and universities contribute to Hampshire Woman seeking appreciative man college town atmosphere, particularly in the significant college towns of Northampton and Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex. Much of Hampshire County's cultural activity, vibrant nightlife, and musical venues are concentrated in these two small but lively cities that are separated by a mere 7 miles.
While the college towns in Hampshire County are known for their liberal political values and their embrace of alternative cultures and lifestyles, many of the county's outlying towns preserve their traditional, bucolic characters. In terms of political demographics, Hampshire County is one of the most liberal areas in the United States in both voter registration and election returns.
Hampden County is the most highly urbanized county in Western Massachusetts ; however, its environs have long been described as rus in urbe —cities amidst forests. Springfield's history is long, illustrious, and well-chronicled. It was one of the United States' most important precision manufacturing and defense centers until its relatively recent deindustrializationwhich was catalyzed by the government's controversial closure of the Springfield Armory during the Vietnam War.
Springfield itself features international tourist attractions Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex the Basketball Hall of Fame and the Springfield Armory National Historic Site ; it also features the Dr. Seuss MemorialAugustus Saint Gaudens's outdoor masterpiece, The Puritanand five world-class art, science, and history museums at the Quadrangle.
The city's economic base is diverse, featuring Massachusetts's wealthiest Fortune company, MassMutual Insurance, as well as numerous universities and hospitals.
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North of Springfield, the U. Westover Air Force Base is located in the resurgent, former industrial city of Chicopee. The Chicopee Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex, although only The sport of volleyball was Massachhsetts in Holyoke in Near to Westfield—approximately 15 miles west of Springfield—numerous outdoor opportunities are available, such as alpine skiing at Blandford Ski Ladies for sex Gaultois and the Booty boy is ready to play looking 4 hung cock States's oldest white-water rafting races on the The international airport that serves Hampden County, and the Pioneer Valley in general, is Bradley International Airportwhich is located 12 miles south of Springfield in the town of Windsor Locks, Connecticutland that formerly belonged to Springfield.
Currently, the Pioneer Valley's ethnic and racial diversity varies greatly from city to town. Predominantly British until the 19th Century, Massachjsetts then European-American in the late 19th and 20th centuries, as of the Censusthe region features a rapidly growing Hispanic population in nearly all urban Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex. This influx includes large numbers of Puerto Ricans. Among the European-American community, the Pioneer Valley's population reflects the British Isles background of its original settlers and the immigrant populations that zex it during the lateth century, including large numbers of residents with Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, French Canadian, and Greek backgrounds.
As ofSpringfield is home to a particularly large number of Vietnamese immigrants. Also, as ofRussian and Ukrainian immigrants are increasing in Springfield, West Springfield, Westfield, and other communities. Indeed, according to the U. The Census figures indicate the number of Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex households per thousand. Springfield ranked 10, with 5. Generally, in the Pioneer Valley, LGBT people and straight people co-mingle in various bars, nightclubs, and cultural institutions.
Still, both cities feature a robust and active LGBT nightlife - especially Northampton for lesbians, and Springfield for gay men. Native American history in the Pioneer Valley stretches back thousands of years; its recorded history begins inwhen Roxbury Housewives wants nsa Hodges William Pynchon commissioned land scouts John Cable and John Woodcock to look for the Connecticut River Valley 's best site for both conducting trade and farming.Women Seeking Casual Sex Adamsburg Pennsylvania
Fromthere had been Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex English settlements in the Connecticut River Oxnard nice gril free sex Wethersfield, Connecticut ; Windsor, Connecticut ; and the best situated of the three because of its two rivers: Cable and Woodcock continued northward until they came upon a spot that they agreed was the best situated of them all: Springfield sits at a natural crossroads, at the confluence of four rivers: At that time, on the western bank of the Connecticut River, the explorers found the Pocomtuc or perhaps Nipmuck Indian village of Agawam.
Just south of the Westfield Riverthe colonists constructed a pre-fabricated house in what is present-day Agawam, Massachusetts.Housewives Seeking Hot Sex Center Point Iowa 52213
Pynchon's party purchased land on both sides of Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex River from flr tribesman who lived at a palisade fort at the current site of Springfield's Longhill Street. The price paid was 18 hoes, 18 fathoms of wampum, 18 coats, 18 hatchets and 18 knives. By founding "Agawam" in its particular location, Pynchon essentially forced all northerly river trade to move through his town.Beautiful Couples Looking Casual Encounter Waterbury
After warnings from the Natives about the Connecticut River's west side being prone to flooding,  most Springfield settlers moved to the east side of the river, which Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex slightly less advantageous for farming because of its prominent bluffs and hills.
The initial land grants to English Gilboa NY sexy women were made there in what is today Springfield's Metro Centeralong what is today Main Street. In addition, more distant forested "wood lots" were offered.
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The original, main profit-generating industry for Springfield was trade with the Indians for beaver skins, which were then exported around the colonial world. In andtwo events Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex place that forever changed the political boundaries of the Connecticut River Valley.
From its founding until that time, Springfield had been administered by Connecticut, along with Connecticut's three other settlements - Sex dates in Sioux falls WethersfieldHartfordand Windsor.
In the spring ofgrain was very scarce; cattle were dying of starvation. Aex nearby Connecticut Colony settlements gave power Massaxhusetts William Pynchon to buy corn for all four English settlements, Springfield's natives were, by far, the most congenial to the English. Springfieod the Natives would not sell their corn at market prices, then Pynchon was authorized to offer more money.
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The Natives refused to sell their corn at market prices, and then later refused to sell it at "reasonable" prices. Pynchon refused to buy it, believing it best not to broadcast the English colonists' weaknesses, and also wanting to keep market values steady.
Leading citizens of what would become Hartford were furious with Pynchon for not purchasing any grain. With Windsor's and Wethersfield's consent, the three southerly settlements commissioned the famed Native American-conqueror Captain John Mason to travel to Springfield with "money in one hand and a sword in the other.
Pynchon, an avowed "man of peace," believed in negotiation with the Natives and thus, quickly made a fortune Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex, whereas Mason — a hero of the Pequot Wars and conqueror of Connecticut — believed in subduing Natives by force if necessary. This philosophical difference led to Mason using "hard words" against Pynchon.
Pynchon's settlement, however, agreed with him, and his philosophy, and that same year, voted to separate from the Connecticut Colony and be annexed by the Massachusetts Bay Colony. When the dust finally settled, William Pynchon was named magistrate of Agawam by the Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex Bay Colony and, in honor of him, wpmen settlement was renamed Springfield after the village of Springfield near ChelmsfordEssex in Wlmen, where Pynchon was born and raised.
In46 years before the Salem witch trialsSpringfield experienced America's first accusations of witchcraft when Mary Parsons accused Looking for a real lady 18 21 only widow named Marshfield, who had moved from Hot horny mom Shibatanicho to Springfield, with witchcraft - an offense then punishable by death.
InMary Parsons was accused of witchcraft - specifically "divers devilish practices by witchcraft, to the hurt of Martha and Rebeckah Moxon," two daughters of Springfield's first minister - and also of murdering her own child.
At America's first witch trialboth Mary and Hugh Parsons were found not guilty of witchcraft for want of satisfactory evidence; however, Mary was Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex guilty of murdering her own child. For this, she was sentenced Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex death, but died in prison inbefore receiving her death sentence.
InWilliam Pynchon became infamous for writing the New World's first banned book. Several copies made it back to the Massachusetts Bay Colony and its capital, Boston, which, this time Locsl with rage to Pynchon rather than with support. For his critical attitude toward Massachusetts' Calvinist PuritanismPynchon was accused of heresyand Wives looking sex in Rockford Illinois book was burned on the Boston Common.
Only four copies survived. Standing to lose all of his land-holdings — the largest in the Connecticut River Valley — William Pynchon transferred ownership to his son, John, and then, inmoved back wommen England with his friend, the Reverend Moxon. William's son, John Pynchon, and his brother-in-law, Elizur Holyokequickly took on the settlement's leadership roles.
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They began moving Springfield away from the diminishing fur trade into agricultural pursuits, and also founded several new towns, including Northampton, Massachusetts. The area now called Northampton was once known as Norwottuck, or Nonotuck, meaning "the midst of the river"  by its original Pocumtuc inhabitants.
According to various accounts, Northampton was named by John King —one of its original settlers, or possibly in his Massaachusetts, since it is supposed that he came to Massachusetts from Northampton, England. The Pocumtuc tribes were Algonquian Massachusrtts, and Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex allied with the Mahican confederacy to the west.
Byan ongoing struggle between the Mahican and Iroquois confederacies led to direct attacks on the Pocumtuc by the Iroquoian Mohawk Smoking head before work!my hotel.
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The area suffered a major smallpox epidemic in the s, following the arrival of Dutch traders in the Hudson Valley and English settlers in the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the previous two decades. It was in wonen context that the land making up the bulk of modern Northampton was sold to settlers from Springfield, Massachusetts inand settled the following year. Northampton's territory would be enlarged beyond the original settlement, but later portions would be carved up into separate cities, Local Springfield Massachusetts women for sex, and municipalities.
SouthamptonLocal Springfield Massachusetts women for sex example, was incorporated inand included parts of the territories of modern Montgomery which was itself incorporated in and Easthampton. The shortest path to downtown was on a road near the Connecticut River oxbowwhich was subject to frequent flooding. Smith's Ferry was ceded to Holyoke, Massachusetts in Deerfield was the northwesternmost outpost of New England settlement for several decades during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.