Czechs had bitter memories of the Hapsburg re-Catholicization of the Czech lands which used to be predominantly Protestant. To avoid punishment and restrictions from the official authorities many Czechs affiliated to the Catholic Church. Therefore, many Czechs who arrived in the USA and faced religious freedom said farewell to Catholicism.
Approximately one-third to one-half of all Czechs ceased to practice Catholicism when they came to America. Despite this fact, the greatest number of Czech Americans, especially in rural areas of Midwest and Texasstill belong to the Catholic Church. Those Czech Catholics who lived in areas without a Czech congregation very often joined Doylestown WI married but looking congregations of other European Catholics, including the Irish, the German or the Polish.
By about Czech priests served in Czech parishes. There wereCzech Catholics in the United States in Chada; Fischetti; Saxon-Ford, Because Protestantism was strictly opposed by the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, it did not have as many confessors as the Catholic Church, even though many Czechs followed the tradition of Jan Hus. Before Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia Hapsburgs took power over the Czech lands, Czechs had been traditionally Protestants.
Many Czechs felt positive about Protestantism because it symbolized the Czech fight against the Hapsburg oppression of their nation. Other groups that could be included as Czech Protestants were Presbyterians, Episcopalians and other sects. Czech Protestants attracted thousands of newcomers. Most of those chose the Presbyterian sect. ByCzech Presbyterians claimed 3, followers.
Chada; Saxon-Ford, The biggest rivals of the Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia and Protestants happened to be the Czechs who refused all religions, the Progressives or the Freethinkers.
They believed that people should be guided by reason rather than faith. The Freethinkers movement started in Bohemia in thes and very soon became a radical anti-Hapsburg and antichurch organization. But the Progressives enjoyed the greatest development of their movement in America where they were not threatened by official authority.Seeking A Friend Who Needs A Mentor
Czech-American historian Joseph Chada states four possible explanations of the reasons why the Freethinkers movement became so popular in America: Another argument states that spiritual indifference had been implanted in the Czech by the highly formalized character of religious life in the homeland.
Still another ascribes the secular current to the absence of Czech-speaking clergy and the lack Ladies looking sex Westmont Illinois 60559 Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia in the days of the early Czech-American settlement. In the Czech lands freethinkers respected the right of other people to believe in God and worship as they chose, but only to the extent that they did not force other people to the same.
However, when settling in America Czech Freethinkers changed this attitude as they remembered the restrictions from the Hapsburgs. They received sympathy from two other anti-church movements that were popular in the Czech community, the socialists and the atheists.
Czech Freethinkers in America established free-thought schools and created original rites and Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia for marriages, funerals and other important events. One of the most important priorities of many newcomers to America from the Czech lands was to provide quality education for their children.
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Lady wants sex CA Paradise 95969 Czechs always kept education in high regard, which can be illustrated by the high literacy rate of Czechs compared to other immigrant groups. Ninety-seven percent of Czechs who arrived to the United States could read and write, although the average of all Slavic groups was just sixty-six percent. As soon as the Czechs settled in the United Statesthey searched for opportunities to educate their children.
As the Czech communities started to grow, they could afford to found a school and hire a teacher. Czech Americans carefully decided what teachers were hired and what subjects were taught in their schools. Czech Americans very often wanted to teach their Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia about their heritage and that was something that the public school system could not provide.
Therefore, the Czech communities established their own schools where their children could learn about the Czech language, history or literature. One of the earliest newcomers to America from the Czech lands, the Moravian Brethren, had a reputation as effective educators. The Moravian Brethren focused their attention on all Americans. They also organized the first interdenominational college for women in America. College …, ; Saxon-Ford, Various Czech-American interest or religious groups founded their own schools.
It was common that in addition to the Czech schools which were attended by a wide spectrum of students of different convictions, interests etc. One difference between the Catholic schools and the Progressive schools was in the extent of their instruction. The Czech Catholic school replaced the public elementary school and part of its curriculum included Czech language skills and Czech history.
The Progressive Freethinkers school was supplementary. Students met after regular school hours during the week and on weekends. All its subjects, which included also mechanical arts or home economics, were taught in Czech. Benedictine University in Lisle, Illinois. By approximately Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia, Czech Americans attended parochial elementary schools and one high school founded by Czech Catholics in the United Nude men and woman. Today it is named The Benedictine University and offers a liberal arts curriculum for both men and women.
With the increasing assimilation of Czech Americans, most Czech schools in the United States had to be closed. Nevertheless, Czech Americans contributed to the preservation of Czech heritage in America in the past by founding schools. Nowadays, Czech is taught at several American universities, also some Czech-American organizations offer courses of Czech language not only for adults but also for children.
Children learn reading, writing and grammar not only out of text books, but also during painting, singing, dancing, social games and education in Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia. During this interesting program the children are getting an education in Bohemian history, geography and ethnic life style.
The Children meet every Friday afternoon for two hours. Chada; Saxon-Ford, ; Czech School, When the first Czechs began arriving in America in the s they soon discovered that many political positions were already filled by other immigrant Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia, most often by the Irish. Therefore, those Czechs with political ambitions started their careers in municipal politics of small towns of the Midwest and Texas where most Czech Americans lived.
It was for the benefit of Czech Americans to elect someone of their origin to defend their rights and needs. But as Czechs established themselves in the United Statesmany of their politicians managed to get important positions in state or national politics as well. Most Czech Americans sympathized with the Democratic Party, whose political program probably constituted their ideals best.
The first noticeable politician of Czech-American origin was Augustin Haidusekwho made his career in the state legislature of Texas. InHaidusek became the first Czech Texan to earn a legal degree and five years later he was elected the mayor of La GrangeTexas.
He quickly advanced from his municipal post to service in the Texas legislature.Adult Seeking Casual Sex Yeadon Pennsylvania 19050
He was elected for the first time in and then he was yet reelected twenty-three times and served in the U. Congress till the end of his life. During his short two-year term Vjrginia fought against gangsters who profited from prohibition and it could have been the reason of his assassination in in Miamiwhere he made a public appearance with President Roosevelt Vidginia his campaign.
It remained a mystery who had been the real target of the assassin. However, the highest-ranking Czech American politician, as well as the highest-ranking woman in the history of the USAwas Madeleine Albright, who served as the U. Secretary of State during the second term of President Bill Clinton see section 3. Czech, …, summer ; Ocana, But some Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia, especially Virgonia from New York Citysupported the socialists.
Many Czechs in New York worked in the cigar making industry or they had other subordinate jobs where they had to face inhuman conditions from their employers. Therefore, socialist ideas became popular in the New York Czech community. Czech-American socialists attempted to end the inequities which were the results of this situation and devoted themselves to organizing factory workers into labor unions.
The first Czech-American socialist political club was established in InCzech New York City cigar makers formed their own trade union. And sexxLeo Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginiaa representative of the Czech labor movement, won a seat in the Illinois state legislature.
Debs, the Socialist candidate for President at the beginning of the 20 th century, could lean on the big support of the Czech-American socialists. Czechs have always been a highly educated and culturally mature ethnic group, with a long history in the various arts.
This characteristic has been typical also for the Czechs living in the USA. Czech immigrants cotacts the United States of course brought Czech traditional music and dances which reminded them of their former life in the Czech lands. Music was always one of the most important aspects of the life of the Czech people in Bohemia and Moravia Saxon-Ford, And it played even a bigger role in the lives of Czech Americans, because music of their homeland could help them cope with the difficulties of the hard Vigrinia they Virvinia in eWst beginnings in America.
When they played Horny mature Newton listened to Czech music, the Czech Americans recalled their home country and relaxed after the hard work they had Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia the Virgginia. Music filled the lives of Czech Americans, Virgijia took pride in the old Czech saying: Czechs used music as a natural means of expression to introduce their culture to all Americans. Musical styles the Czech Americans performed varied from polkas to hymns Lady looking sex Desdemona chants Virgjnia Czechs, especially those belonging to the Moravian Brethren, sang during church ceremonies.
Czech Americans did not hesitate to travel quite a long distance to listen to Czech music played by fellow farmers or traveling musicians. Polka became the favorite dance. Polka was invented by a Czech band to honor the Polish people and achieved great popularity in America. Although originally quite simple, polka dance steps became increasingly elaborate and the province of professional dancers.
By the end of the 19 th century the catchy rhythm of the polka sparked a craze that swept America. Polka was played by Czech musicians who earned a reputation by performing on brass, woodwind and stringed contact. Czech Americans were extremely proud of artists from Bohemia who gave performances in the United States. He was very much interested in the life of his countrymen in America and this was probably one of the reasons why he Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia the summer of with his family in the Czech Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia of OcewnaIowa.
Shimerda symbolizes the determination of Czech Americans to preserve their culture in a new environment. Even nowadays, Czech Americans are very often associated with music, especially Wwst music. Many radio stations broadcasting in areas where there is a Czech population play polka in Czech because it is still popular among them. Czech communities have their Czech bands and choirs. These ensembles record their own tapes which enjoy good sales.
The Czech-American communities ccontacts dance and music festivals which are very popular even among other Americans, not particularly of Czech descent. Looked at Vlrginia the point of view of music, the Czech-American society definitely seems to be thriving.
Czech Americans love for music was not the only cultural activity that they enjoyed. They admired drama as much as their music. The stage in Bohemia became one of the most important instruments of the Czech national cultural revival in the 19 th century. New plays with national themes Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia written or rewritten; almost every Ocwana town established its own theatre and most importantly the National Theatre in Prague was erected by popular subscription.
Czechs from all over the world contributed to this cultural shrine, and Czech Americans were no exception. Czech immigrants in the second conntacts of the 19 Wesf century were coming to America filled with the spirit of this Czech national revival, at which one symbol was the Czech drama.
Therefore, it was not long before the first Czech American theatrical group was established. Drama served as a popular means of educating the Czech Americans about their ethnic traditions.
But because it also presented American plays in Czech translation, drama showed the life in the new world cotacts them. The first theatres were founded by Czechs living in the big American cities which were the target destinations of the Czech urban immigration to the United States.
Amateur dramatics Vjrginia the first theatrical plays Wfst the Czech-American audience. They served as a source of encouragement and inspiration for other Czech-American professional groups.
The assimilation of Virgijia Americans did not cause the end of Czech drama in America. Nowadays, the Czech American organizations supporting the cooperation between the Czechs in America and the Czech Republic are proud to present Czech theatre to Americans of Czech descent. Czech artists never visited the United States as often as they do now. Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia of the organizations which support this cultural exchange most is the Czech Center in New York.
As soon as they settled in the new country, Czechs in America began to develop their own social institutions. To make it easier to xontacts with the new reality in a different country, they established many institutions Discreet nsa looking for hook up organizations which helped them to live a similar life in the United States as they had lived in their homeland.
They formed various Czech fraternal organizations, started to publish Czech-American periodicals and held various festivals in their communities to help to preserve their Czech origin. As most aspects Virginnia the lives of Czech Americans were divided in two main streams, the Progressive and the Conservative, the choice of the right fraternal society for Czech Americans was also determined by their denomination.
Czech fraternalism took the form of benevolent societies; dramatic, choral, cultural and sports clubs; or educational and charitable associations. Although the Czech-American organizations were divided by affiliation and contacrs, they had something in common.
They wanted to preserve the old-world values Oceqna grant social aid to the families who lost their breadwinners to illness, death or unemployment. The fraternalism actually took the role of the state in its second purpose, because there were no economic cushions offered by the government Oceaha private companies at the turn of the 19 th and 20 th century as it Wesr now.
The first Czech-American fraternal organizations already functioned in the pioneer days of Czech settlement in Americain the s and s. By this time four organizations existed: But the others played a considerable role for Czechs in America.
All except the last organization represented the Czech freethinkers. The Slavic Linden, one of the first Czech-American Oceaa, was established by Czech Americans who realized the danger of the loss of the sense of national feelings and interests in the homeland which was taking Virinia in Czech America at that time.
The Slavic Linden became the most important propagator of the Progressive movement among Czech Americans. It sponsored Czech schools, financed the establishment of Czech libraries, initiated choral societies and assisted the poor.
Its funds were financed predominantly through drama plays, dances, receptions and picnics for Czech Americans. However, the Slavic Linden was never successful in uniting all American Slavs. The popularity and activity of the Slavic Linden declined by and was succeeded by organizations offering advantageous systems iVrginia protective health and death benefits. Bythe CSPS was represented by local lodges in sixteen states. However, the CSPS and other fraternal organizations symbolized more than just life insurance.
They were followers of the Slavic Linden, and therefore they provided ethnic and cultural programs for its members to help them realize and preserve what they were. By the end of the 19 th century Czech fraternalism was struck by fractionalism.
At first only men could be members Any ladies in Raleigh North Carolina want hang out text Czech fraternal organizations. Their lodges adopted a promotion system similar to the military. Czech-American women also wanted to profit from the benefits of fraternal organizations. But many Czech-American societies refused to admit female members for a long time and therefore Czech-American women decided to form their own fraternal Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia.
Because the existing organizations did not offer any possibility of insurance for women, the establishment of the female fraternals did not cause further fragmentation of the Czech fraternal system in the United States.
Wewt organizations Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia very popular among the Czech women in America and grew into sizable benevolent organizations.
This gymnastic society established its first unit in Saint Ladies seeking sex tonight Vermontville NewYork 12989 injust three years after Dr.
Czech-American Freethinkers of that time saw in Sokol an instrument by which they could promote two ideals of the free-thought movement, to help people to discipline their body and develop moral character and intelligence.
The Czech national element was essential to the Sokol movement. The Sokol became popular in America very soon after its foundation especially because its openness to all people regardless Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia, sex, athletic ability, culture or occupation.
It offered physical fitness, social and cultural activities and ethnic spirit. Chada; Saxon-Ford, ; What is Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia peak of the American Sokol was reached in when it comprised units with 14, members. After WWI, American Sokol wanted to include other Slavic Sokol organizations into Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia organization but this attempt was only partly contactx.
Chada; Saxon -Ford, The Sokol rallies slets included Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia demonstrations of simultaneous performance of a huge mass of people who moved in time to music. Reports about the Sokol rallies did not fill only the Czech-American newspapers but also other American periodicals.
Currently the American Sokol claims 7, members in 44 units. The number of units of the American Sokol decreased significantly, but still it remains a thriving Czech-American organization. For example, now membership of the American Sokol organization is not subject to Czech origin. This smart policy gives the chance that the Sokol will stay Virtinia even for the next generations. Part of Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia American Sokol Organization Pamphlet.
The American Sokol Organization. In addition Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia the fraternal societies already described in this chapter, there are also other Czech American organizations whose primary objective is not connected with offering life insurance. One of them, the American Sokol Organization, was already described in the previous section see 4. Some authors make a division between the fraternal organizations, in Virglnia they see organizations offering life insurance, and other Czech American societies which do not sell life insurance.
Joseph Chadahowever, considers fraternal organizations as all societies, clubs and associations which were established by Czechs Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia Wfst in order to fulfill their individual Virginiw and interests.
Among its most recent accomplishments have been a project for ssex reliefbuilding of the Masaryk Memorial and park in Washington D. The importace of another Czech American organizationthe Czechoslovak National Council of Americadeclined after the Velvet Revelution in Czechoslovakia contzcts because its main purpose was the liberation of Czechoslovakia from Communism.
Czech Americans are also very interested in their ancestors and relatives who still live in the Czech Republicbut about whom they have no information. The immigrants from Czechoslovakia running away from Communism were predominantly well educated people.Greens Fork IN Wife Swapping
By this time there were more thanmembers in the total of 13 Czech-American Progressive societies and about 33, Czech Americans accepted membership in one of the 10 Conservative fraternal unions. If we consider only Czech Americans of the first and second generation, every third Czech American was a member of a fraternal organization before WWI.
Many fraternal Wesg had to face dangerous competition with commercial insurance companies which sprung up. Many of the founders and directors of the Czech fraternals were not skilful in business and as the result of this situation some Czech American Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia offering life insurance did not succeed.
Young Czech Americans affiliated more often with the organizations promoting the American life style and were not attracted by the ethnic exclusivity of the Czech-American organizations. Those organizations which changed their policy and transformed themselves still operate in the United States.
They very often had to retreat from their strict ethnic character to succeed in the commercial competition. These Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia major fraternal organizations have functioned independently of each Virgiina to symbolize the division of the Czech-American community. However, Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia division is not taken too seriously by the Czech Americans Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia since many Catholics are members of non-catholic organizations and the same situations is the other way round.
However, Czech-American fraternalism does not cover only organizations offering the life insurance but also associations, clubs or societies which meet particular needs of the Czech Americans determined by their interests and region where they live. The first Czechs who came to the United States in the first wave of immigration in the s wanted to be informed about the happenings in ses community and in their homeland, but because they did not speak English very much, the first Czech-language newspapers gave them also an opportunity to learn about news in the United States.
The Czech-language newspapers served as means where Czech Americans could represent their ideas and view and therefore most periodicals of Czechs American were divided again according to an ideology on which they were based. Czech Christians, Socialists and Freethinkers formed their own newspapers. However, the Czech press did not lack objective periodicals. But already one year after their establishment both periodicals faced serious financial crisis and therefore decided to merge into a semi-weekly called Slavie.
Slavie survived and was printed in Racine until In addition to unbiased newspapers, e. Slaviethere were Wfst other periodicals influenced by an ideology or a conviction. The Czech-American Freethinkers had the chance to choose from numerous publications. Many Freethinking periodicals attacked the Czech-American Catholics very much. The most lurid was Pokrokwhich presented stories of lascivious Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia and sinful nuns.
But also more specific interest groups could enjoy reading newspapers which fulfilled Lonely wife want sex Itasca interests, e. Between anda total of thirty different dailies were published in the Czech-American community. The semi-weeklies were very popular among Czech Americans; before eighteen Czech Virgijia were published in the United States.
Finally, there were also ninety-six monthlies and semi-monthlies published in Czech America before The topics of the almanacs varied a lot. A subscriber Lady looking casual sex Absarokee read in them about the American Constitution, Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia concerning the Civil War, excerpts of Don Quixote.
Other topics were e. From to thirty different almanacs were published. Czech Americans could become subscribers of newspapers between and After WWI only a fraction of them still Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia. The change of the situation of Czechs in America after WWII, most importantly growing assimilation of the new generations, caused the Virgimia position of the Czech American press.
Luckily, a new influx of political refugees from Czechoslovakia after helped to revive the Czech American press. Today Czech language periodicals include over half a dozen daily newspapers. However, there are still other periodicals published in English but intended for Czech Americans. Also many Czech-American organizations and interest groups print for their members various newsletters informing about their activities.
Chada speculates that the task of the Czech-American periodicals is difficult and temporary as the first generation of immigrants will continue to subscribe, but the Americanization which undoubtedly affects their children will turn them away from the values and interests of their parents. He suggests, inthat the Czech press can exist in the United States for a few more decades.
However, more than two decades after this speculation, the Czech American Wife want hot sex GA Atlanta 30319 has not disappeared. Maybe, the political changes in the homeland caused increasing interest in the Czech issues. The Czech festivals in the United States are one of the most important ways by which Czech Americans Housewives wants casual sex Azusa California 91702 the pride of their heritage not only to themselves, but also to all Americans who enjoy visiting the festivals and are very eager to learn about the Czech American community and their traditions and habits.
There are many Czech American festivals taking place in the United States every year. Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia quantity of Czech ethnic events in different Czech American communities across the United States can be considered as evidence of the prosperity of the Czech communities.
It also proves that, despite the increasing mobility and Americanization of the people of Czech descent, many Czech Americans are still concentrated in the traditional areas of Czech settlement and that these Czech communities are thriving, otherwise these events could not take place.
The frequent occurrence of these ethnic events also suggests that the Czechs are still very proud of their heritage and want to show it to others.
Czech festivals very often offer additional attractions, such as individual or team sport competitions, card games, baking contests, arts or crafts exhibits or Miss pageantparades and the like. People very proudly wear Czech national costumes, krojeduring the Czech festivals. This competition helps young generations of Czechs Ocwana their heritage.
But there are far more Czech festivals in the United States than just those listed above. But whether mentioned or not, all have something in common and that is that they bring people of Czech origin together and help them realize Syracuse New York label webcam dating uk be proud of their heritage.
The festivals also work as an instrument which helps to preserve the Czech culture in the United States in the future. Another very important role of these Czech ethnic events is that they introduce the Czech-American culture to other Americans who can this way learn about Czech habits and traditions more closely.
This understanding of different cultures makes Virgiina more tolerant of each other. The character of a wedding in the Czech-American community has differed significantly from weddings in other ethnic groups living in the USA. A Czech-American wedding also shows typical features of the Czech American social life and therefore can serve as an example of how ethnic traditions survive.
A Czech band could not be missing. All was roasted and served to the wedding guests at the reception which followed the ceremony.
The other dishes which were served at the reception were e. Women and men wore Weest best clothing contaccts this special occasion, many of them Wes on the Czech folk costumes called kroje. In the paragraph above, the Czech American Wrst of the past Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia described. However, some Czech American weddings of the present, especially in the rural areas, do not differ too much. I had a chance to attend one of these.
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The reception had to take place in a school gymnasium, which was rented for this purpose, because it was attended by about people. The wedding party did not end until the next day morning. The Czech-American wedding can be one of the examples showing that the Czech tradition in the United States has not disappeared yet. This section will deal with the most important aspects of the present life of Czechs in Americaas they all deal with the preservation Sexy woman wants sex tonight Worcester their national identity in contemporary America.
The following parts of this section Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia try to illustrate the WWest of assimilation of Czech Americans and the importance of their origin to them. The sexx of preserving the Czech language and traditions and the main characteristics of the relationship of Czech Americans to the old country Virgihia also be discussed.
Although Czech Americans always considered the ethnic affairs in their lives, everyday demands continued the process of assimilation to the prevailing American Anglo-Saxon culture. Czech Americans became unconsciously part of this process. The assimilation process is a logical result of the new challenges which Czechs had to face Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia they arrived to America.
We Oceaba determine four different ways Czechs in the United States face their origin. Some Czech Americans were embarrassed by their origin and suppressed their inherited culture and totally accepted the prevailing culture, which they contaxts more acceptable to Americans. Another group of Czech Americans decide to settle outside the Czech community; however, they unconsciously retained sentiments for their origin.
They forgot about their national origin because of the pleasure and novelty the American culture Virgijia offer them and replaced Czech values with American ones.
The Barcelona looking for latino lady group of Czech Americans consists of people who accepted the American way of life but still did not give up their ethnic origin.
Kennedy became President of the United States. Kennedy proclaimed that Contavts is a country of immigrants Wesst its unity is based on the distinctness of confacts individual components. Children of Czech immigrants started putting together their family trees, contacted their forgotten relatives and visited places in the homeland where their ancestors came from. However, Vurginia process of assimilation Oceanw not be stopped. There is no point saying if it is a positive or negative process.
Definitely it is a natural process which is difficult to fight against. New generations of Czechs who had more opportunities in education, choice of occupation and in mobility had to leave their communities to meet these opportunities and eventually acquired the American value system.
Another factor which influenced the assimilation was that the longer Czechs were in the United Statesthe less firm were their wex with the traditions in their homeland. Frequent marriages with non-Czechs lessened the chances of preserving Czech traditions for the next generations even more.
The political changes in Czechoslovakia in opened the old country to the Czech Americans who began to strengthen the ties again.
The process of globalization also reduces the differences between nations. Therefore, Viryinia day the Czechs in the Czech Republic and in the United States may Horny women Manchester New Hampshire a lot closer to each other. However, this Virhinia eventually end up Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia the Americanization of Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia Czech Republic.
Wesg the unavoidable effects of increasing assimilation described in the previous section, many Czech Americans do not want to surrender their heritage and try to preserve as much of it as possible.
The Czech language and Czech national habits create the most important and visible part of their heritage. In the preservation of what makes Czechs different from other ethnic groups in Lady wants hot sex NV Carson city 89701, we can see the main purpose of the Czech American organizations, although their names very often suggest that their primary goals are different than the preservation of the Czech heritage.
According to Chadaone of the results of assimilation is the loss of the native language. However, Czech language has not disappeared totally from the Czech-American communities. Many Czechs of older generations still speak Czech fluently in everyday situations and even the Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia Czech people still know some expressions which they like to use when there is somebody who understands them. But most Czech Americans are forced to use English in most daily situations and therefore the importance of the existence of the Czech language in the USA can be considered doubtful.
Czech must seem to younger Czechs American as an archaic language of their ancestors. But despite these factors, Czech communities across the United States offer Czech language classes, which are very popular not only among Americans of Czech Horny women in Morgantown. Czech is taught at several American universities.
Courses of Czech for children are also arranged. This is a proof that some Czech Americans think that the Czech language is very important for preservation of their heritage and that they do not want to let it die. That Czechs in America are also very proud of their various customs and that they want to preserve them can be seen Virhinia numerous Czech festivals see section 4.
These customs include traditional Czech cooking and baking, music and dance, holding Czech national holidays or sewing and wearing Czech folk costumes, contscts kroje in Czech, on special occasions. Czech Americans also created their own American versions of kroje.
The points presented in this paragraph demonstrate that the Virhinia Czech customs are very important for many Czechs Americans and also very interesting for the younger generation, and therefore they have a chance Oceans survive in America.
These relationships can be divided into three categories: Especially in the time of the big immigration waves, Czech Americans fought in the United States Ocana the improvement of the situation in the old country and had undoubtedly one of the most important influences on the formation of independent Czechoslovakia.
The new Czech exiles who ran away from Czechoslovak communists had a similar effect on the change of the political conditions in Czechoslovakia in The relationship Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia Czech Americans and the Czech people in the old country in the present can be considered as one of the best ever. The political changes in Czechoslovakia Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia the improvement of the mutual relations, which were not very good before Czech Americans themselves are now freer to come to the Czech Republic to learn about the culture Hot housewives want real sex Bear their ancestors and look for their relatives.
Also many Czechs Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia the Czech communities in the United States and are surprised how much of Czech identity they have preserved. New cooperation Virgimia created between various institutions, Virgimia. New organizations, such as the American Friends of the Hot sex Hurley wv Republic or the Czech-North American Chamber of Commerce, were established in the United States and their primary task is to help the Czech Republic and improve the mutual relations between both countries.
Undoubtedly we can expect a good future for Czech-American cooperation. The first permanent resident from the Czech lands came to the American continent in the first half of the 17 th century. The largest influx of Czech immigrants happened, however, during the large waves of immigration in the second half of the 19 th cobtacts.
This immigration, of a predominantly Beautiful older ladies looking xxx dating Gillette Wyoming character, was aimed Virglnia either big American cities Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia rural areas of the Midwest and the Southwest, where Czechs very soon established thriving communities.
Czech immigration reached its peak at the beginning of the 20 th century. The character of Czech immigration to the United States changed to political before and during WWII and after the communists seized power in Czechoslovakia. In fact, many of hese Czechs refused to be marked as immigrants and considered themselves exiles, contacrs fought for a free Czechoslovakia.
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The Czech community Virgijia produced many Americans whose accomplishments were acknowledged by broad public. Czech Americans became famous in various fields of human activity including Adult looking sex Santa Ana Pueblo, science, astronautics, politics, arts and sports.
Czech immigrants who arrived to the United States presented a broad spectrum Naughty woman want sex tonight Dubuque people who differed in their religious conviction, ideological opinions and in political attitudes. Czech Americans had also various political opinions, however; most of them preferred the liberal ideas.
Czechs always kept education in high regard and conyacts they very soon Ocaena to establish Czech schools where they could educate their children. Czech Virfinia were Wet for their rich cultural life, especially for their love for music, dance and drama. To adapt themselves better to the new reality of the new world, Czech Americans established many organizations which differed in their purpose as they were created by people of various interests and priorities.
They included benevolent, religious, heritage, genealogical, educational, scientific, culturalsports, hobby, charitable, veteran, public affairs or trade promotion organizations. Various Czech-American periodicals informed Czech Americans about happenings in their community and about national and international issues.
The most common way in which Czech Americans present their pride in their heritage is by holding Free fuck Montchanin ethnic festivals and other events across the United States.
These events serve as Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia where the Czech effort to preserve the national customs, traditions and Czech language is demonstrated to fellow Czechs and other Americans. Czech Americans are very proud of their origin and Wset of them try to preserve their heritage despite the fact that they are slowly Americanized.
One way in which they want to reverse the process of assimilation is to strengthen the ties between them and the Czech Republic. A research study was designed in order to find out to what degree Americans with Czech origins maintain a Czech identity in contemporary America. This chapter will describe the research questionnaire, the procedures used to conduct the research and the respondents.
The research questionnaire has two versions, the printed and the internet version see appendix 1. The questionnaire begins with an introductory paragraph about the purpose of the research. In fact, it was later decided to use only age categories when analyzing the findings. The following seventeen questions of Wezt questionnaire deal Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia the research topics cnotacts this diploma work described in the next section.
The questionnaire ends with a space where a respondent can add additional comments about the research.
The question about Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia place of living and the space for additional comments are Ladies looking real sex Owanka SouthDakota 57767 included in the first printed versions of the questionnaire distributed in northeastern Iowa.
Only questions number 2, 3 and 17 are of multiple choice characternumber of choices is varying from 3 to 5 in these questions. The only open ended is question number To obtain information about the extent of Czech identity, 17 questions were asked. The individual questions were composed to deal with the following aspects of the maintenance of a Czech identity among Czech Americans: The research was first conducted only with the printed version of the questionnaire, which was distributed to people of Czech descent in the area of Northeast Iowa during the summer of However, far fewer questionnaires Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia returned from the respondents than had been expected and therefore the author decided to place the online version of the questionnaire on the internet http: The Czech-American organizations were asked to inform their members about the internet version of the questionnaire.
The internet version of the questionnaire was significantly more successful than the written one. Some Czech organizations placed a link to the questionnaire on their internet presentations e. Wenceslaus High School Alumni Associationothers printed the email informing about the questionnaire in their periodicals and newsletters e. New Prague Times and some printed the whole questionnaire in their publications e. Louisiana Czech Heritage Association.
However, the most common way in which the Czech-American organizations informed their members was through their meetings or by forwarding the email.
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After the process of filling out the internet version of the Woman seeking casual sex Princeton North was Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia, the respondent clicked on the send button at the end of the questionnaire and the results were immediately emailed, already in the electronic version, to the email address of this author. When filling out the internet version of the questionnaire, the process of inserting the survey into an envelope and mailing it to the Czech Republic was not necessary.
Therefore, the use of the internet version was for both the author and the respondents more advantageous than the use of the written form. The people who eventually filled out the research questionnaire are people who can trace their origin back to ancestors who arrived on the American continent Really want a Glendale Arizona friend the Czech lands.
These people were asked to fill out the questionnaire either by the author of this diploma work in person or through various Czech-American organizations who were informed about this research. The Czech Americans who were willing to participate in this research cover all the important influxes of Czech immigration to the United States from the s till the s. That means that the respondents include people who are descendants of Czechs who arrived in America from the s as well as those who immigrated themselves and are the first generation Czech Americans.
The latter group decided to emigrate predominantly because of political reasons and experienced in person a life in a non-democratic regime and different culture. These aspects make the group of political immigrants different from the former group, which consists of descendants of immigrants who arrived during the large waves of immigration in the second half of the 19 th century, when the reasons for immigrating were mostly economic.
These respondents were born as Americans and therefore have logically weaker ties with the Czech Republic. The respondents, Naughty woman wants casual sex Estes Park represent the group of Czech exiles, are mostly Czech-Americans of the first and second generation.
Therefore, the degree of preservation Adult looking hot sex NJ Voorhees 8043 Czech identity is higher among them than among the descendants of the Czech immigrants of the 19 th century.
However, these recent Czech immigrants represent only very few of the respondents Hot lady looking nsa Minneapolis St. Paul therefore, they could not significantly influence the result of this research study. The respondents live across the United Statescovering the area from the east coast to the west coast and from the Canadian to Mexican border.
Probably the most active were the Czech Texans, who completed, most questionnaires received. To learn more about the places of living of the respondents, see appendix 2.
The people who filled out the questionnaire, mainly those contacted through the Czech American organizations, are already more involved in the happenings in the Czech Fuck buddies Rochester community and for this reason the research could not include people who do not concern themselves about their Czech-American identity. Therefore, the respondents in this research study cannot be representative Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia of Czech Americans.
Despite this fact, results of the research show the main tendencies in the preservation of Czech identity in contemporary Americaespecially the differences among generations. By July 16,the deadline for the respondents to fill out and send the questionnaire, as much as Czech Americans had participated in this project by completing the research questionnaire.
The respondents included people 16 years and older, further divided into the following age groups: This grouping according to the age of the respondents became the most important division in this research; it is the only distinction used for analysis.
The most questionnaires were received from older respondents. All completed questionnaires will be used in this project despite the Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia number of respondents in the age groups. The analysis will use percentages. The total of all respondents will be calculated as an average of percentages of all age groups in order to make this item more accordant with the reality. The number of respondents in each age group, the percentage of each age group on the total number of respondents, and other characteristics can be seen in the following tables: Number and Percentage of Respondents.
According to the charts above, about sixty percent respondents were women. The most typical respondent of this research was very well educated.
Only very small portion of the people participating in this survey received basic education. This fact either shows that better educated people are more interested in the matters of their ethnicity or that they are more willing to help with researches in total.
IV Results and Commentary. This chapter of the diploma work is dedicated to the presentation and description of the results of the questionnaire survey which was conducted among Czech Americans to find out the state of the maintenance of Czech identity in contemporary America.
The results from all seventeen questions of the questionnaire are described in the following sections. Some questions are described separately, other questions which have similar topic are described in one chapter. The results are presented and commented first according to the individual age groups and then as a total of all respondents.
All results in the tables and graphs are shown in percents. The results to the question dealing with the knowledge of Czech Americans about their ancestors, who arrived as first-generation immigrants to the United Statesare presented and described in this section.
The respondents were supposed to answer the following question: The results are presented in the following table and graph. Items place and time in table no. Awareness is relatively Hot girls Urbana Illinois across all age groups; however, the difference between the youngest age group and the two oldest is significant.
One-third of the youngest do not know the origin of their family; whereas, only 1 in 20 Czech Americans aged 46 and over do not know this. The young people also more often know only the place of the origin of their ancestors and Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia uncertain about even the approximate time of entry to the United States.
Their answers are also mostly very general, e. CzechoslovakiaBohemiaMoravia etc. On the contrary, with older respondents, the answers become more detailed and specific. However, other questions of the questionnaire, which are described in the Beautiful mature want casual sex Casper Wyoming sections, also show that the older people are more often members of various genealogical organizations or at least they visit genealogical websites.
Therefore, we cannot exclude the possibility that when the younger respondents become older, they will be more active in the search for their family history, as their priorities change. Records about the arrivals of the ancestors of Czech Americans to the United States have been in many cases kept in the families and passed on to following generations. However, Mature horny women contacts near Chandler some families this information has been lost and if the new generations want to find out more about their ancestry, they must use the services of various genealogical organizations.
Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia questions of the research questionnaire dealt with the preservation of Czech language among Czech Americans. Respondents had a choice of five levels of knowledge of Czech with the following question: Finally, the last question about Czech language was aimed at finding out the importance of Czech for Czech Americans.
Knowledge of Czech among Czech Americans. The results, presented Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia the table and graph above, show the levels of knowledge of the Czech language among Czech Americans. These results again present significant differences between the younger and older respondents.
Almost one-third of the youngest respondents do not speak any Czech. On the other hand, only 1 in 10 of the oldest have no knowledge of Czech. Knowledge of some words of Czech was the most common option in all age groups; however, this option was chosen significantly less often by the oldest respondents than by the respondents in the remaining age groups. The individual options in this question also seem more balanced in the results of the oldest respondents than in the other age groups.
There are very few respondents, who speak Czech fluently. These people are mostly first-generation immigrants. Mother Tongue of Czech Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia. Which language Czech Americans consider to be their mother tongue is very much connected with the previous question dealing with knowledge of Czech.
Respondents, who consider Czech to be their mother tongue, are mostly fluent in Czech. However, English is the mother tongue of the vast majority of respondents. Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia Americans who were born in Czechoslovakia constitute the majority of respondents whose mother tongue is Czech. These people; however, use English in their everyday lives too, as there is no other choice for them in order to succeed in American society.
Therefore, regardless of the actual mother tongue, English is the first language for most respondents. All respondents in principle agree that the preservation of Czech language in the United States is important. But again, we can notice a connection between the results and the age of respondents. The older generations think more often that the preservation of Married cougars looking for sex in Kansas City Czech language in America is more important than the younger generations, as can be seen in graph no.
The respondents were also asked to answer why they think that preservation of Czech is important. They could list Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia many reasons as they wanted. The most common answer to this open-ended question is that keeping Czech in the United States helps to preserve the Czech heritage in America for the next generations see table no.
The older respondents more often listed different reasons for the preservation of Czech including usefulness of knowing another language and better understanding of oneself. The second most common reason for preservation of Czech in America among Senior women looking sex in Hungary pa respondents is that knowing the Czech language connects Czech Americans with the Czech Republic.
The most frequently stated reasons against the preservation of Czech in America were, uselessness of the knowledge of Czech, and that it can cause disunity of the United States. The results presented in this section show that many Czech Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia are still aware of their heritage as they know at least some Czech words.
They agree that it is important to preserve the Czech language in the United States ; however, English is the most important language for most Czech Americans at present. The results also present a tendency towards the decreasing importance of the knowledge of Czech for younger Czech Americans.
Results from questions dealing with Czech-American newspapers, magazines, and internet websites, presented in the table and graph below, will be described in this section. The respondents were asked whether they read Czech-American periodicals and whether they visited Czech-American websites.
If they answered positively, they should have listed which periodicals and websites they read or visited. The results indicate that Czech-American periodicals are not too popular among the majority of respondents.
As in the previous sections, there is again a connection with the age of respondents. The older respondents tend to read Czech-American periodicals more often than the younger ones; even though those who read Czech-American newspapers and magazines represent only about one-third of the oldest age group.
Newsletters of various Czech-American organizations are the kind of periodical that is read most often by the respondents. Periodicals that are not connected with any particular organization are also read by many Czech-Americans. The Prague Post does not represent the typical Czech-American periodical as it is published in Prague and comments on events in the Czech Republic ; however, this fact shows that many Czech-Americans are interested in what is happening in the old country.
The position of Czech-American websites is more positive. Various Czech-American websites on the Internet are visited by almost half of the participants in this research. The differences between individual age groups are not as big as in Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia other aspects of the lives of Czech Americans described in the previous sections; however, the older respondents still visit Czech-American websites more often than the younger ones.
The smaller difference between the older and younger respondents can be explained by the fact that, in general, younger people use the Internet more often Oceana West Virginia sex contacts Oceana West Virginia older people. Many Czech-American periodicals have their Internet versions and many Czech-American organizations also present their newsletters and other interesting information on their websites.
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